DRAFT GLOSSARY/GROWING DEFINITIONS
(I think there's a few left out, as well as I probably wrote a lot of stuff not really necessary, and even just confusing... I assume that will be edited and changed by the powers that be... )
Aeroponic - A form of hydroponic system where the roots are suspended in air and misted with nutrient solution to keep the roots moist and fed. It is generally thought to give excellent growth and results, but it's more maintenance and more prone to failure in power loss.
Airstone - A porus stone used on the end of an airline (from an aquaruim airpump or similar, to disperse the air in solution better. You can also get airwands which are simple plastic tubes or similar with small holes along its length. Airpumps and stones are used to either provide extra aeration to the nutrient solution in a recirculating or run to waste reservoir system, or as a primary oxygen supply for roots in Deep Water Culture (see DWC
) and similar hydroponic systems where the roots are immersed in water.
Aphids - a.k.a. Are a pest of Cannabis and many other plant species. There are several species which have been known to attack cannabis, some of these are quite specific feeders, and you will not come into contact with all of them in Australia. Some of the species are listed here: The bhang aphid(Phorodon cannabis) and hops aphid (P. humuli). Others are more general feeders, affecting more than one species, and these are the ones you are more likely to encounter. These include the peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae). Aphids will tend to group themselves on the underside of the leaves, and sometimes on the young shoots, although this is usually signs of a late stage infestation.Some aphids will even infest flowering tops, which can become distorted and twisted. As an aphid feeds on plants by inserting its proboscis, it causes a yellow or white stippling on the under and upper sides of the leaves. They penetrate cells, sucking out the juices of the plant, and extruding the wastes (mostly sugars, as it's looking for protein) from its anus. Aside from the obvious damage an infestation of aphids can cause just from feeding on the plant and weakening it, this honeydew substance can cause further problems. It attracts ants and can also support the growth of black and other mould species. As well as this, aphids can also spread diseases, such as viruses, bacteria and fungal infections from sick plants to healthy ones. Aphids can be controlled with various insecticides, contact surfactants, systemic as well as chemical spray insecticides, offering varying efficacy. (Thanks to Cannabis Pests J. M. McPartland, AMRITA, 53 Washington Street,Middlebury, VT 05753, USA http://www.hempfood....A/iha03201.html
Ballast - Contains 1. A symmetrical AC current source providing:
a) nearly constant effective current between zero and the minimum lamp voltage at nominal lamp power;
nearly constant effective power equal to the nominal lamp power between the minimum and maximum lamp voltage;
2. it includes an appropriate ignitor for starting purpose
Ballasts are used for both HID
lamps as well as fluorescent tubes, but the size and actual running is slightly different. Ballasts are essential for HID
and fluoroescent use, as they maintain current at the correct level for the lamp, as well as stepping it up initially to ignite the lamps and get the gas held inside to vapourise.
Bonsai - A method of keeping plants small and somewhat stunted, taken from the Japanese art of Tree Bonsai. This method is used to maintain motherplants in small size for easy maintenance. By keeping smaller motherplants, you can keep more of them easier, and in less space. The process involves continuous trimming and training, and to some degree reducing the rooting space available to the plant.
Clones/Cloning - Clones are for all intents and purposes genetically identical copies of the plant from which they are taken. Strickly speaking cloning is a cellular division, but it's a term used for cuttings (small tip shoots with semi-hard stems) taken from a vegetative stage plant,* which are then placed in a media and given specific conditions to induce rooting on the lowest part of the stem. These plants are then biologically as old as the motherplant, but not taking anywhere near as long to grow as the equivalent sized seedling. Cloning is the process of taking clones from a plant and rooting them.*The clones can be taken from flowering plants, but these are usually more difficult to root and revert back to vegetative growth. It will take longer to clone a flowering plant than a vegging one.
Compact Fluoro (CF) - A moderately recent development in lighting, these are small fluoro tubes set into a fitting which can go into any normal incandescent light fitting. They can come in anything from 10w to 48w variants, and in various spectrums.
- Deep Water Culture - A form of hydroponic system of growth using aerated nutrient solution to support the roots of a plant in a bucket or similar lightproof container. Systems can also be known as Bubblers, because of the need to aerate the nutrient solution. It has no media, although netpots are often used with a small amount of hydroponic media like expanded clay or growool to stabilise the plant above the water. The roots are grown in the solution, and oxygen is supplied via an airpump.
- Electro-Conductivity. A measure of the rate at which a solution will pass electricity through it via the salt ions in solution. This is used to determine the level of dissolved salts and other electrically conductive particles in the nutrient solution using an E.C. meter. E.C. is measured in milliSiemens. E.C. readings are taken to ensure the nutrient solution in hydroponic systems is in the correct range, although it will not give you specific information about the composition of those salts, just their total concentration.
meter - A device used to measure the Electrical Conductivity. They usually have measures in milliSiemens, although it can be expressed in different ways, like CF, (x 10 ec) or ppm (different according to the country, but here it's thought to be x7 cf or x70 ec.)
Flowering - The biological process which some plants use to reproduce. In Cannabis case, this is a stage of growth following the vegetative stage, and it is the growth of flowers which provides the "buds" which growers desire. Flowers are produced along the branches at nodes, where before they would have developed into new shoots and branches... The flowers are individually small, between 1 and 3 mm, sometimes larger, with two hairs, (stigma) coming from a slit in the calyx. As the plant progresses through flowering over time, the flowers begin to wane if not fertilised by male pollen, and the hairs will turn brown. The flowers will continue to be produced by the plant in the absence of fertilisation, and the thc levels on those flowers will also increase, the longer fertilisation is excluded. When the majority of flowers on the plant are in the late stages, and most are starting to swell (not with seed, this is called senescence and is peak flowering) or already swollen and coated with Trichomes, the flowers are usually harvested and dried. Individual strains of Cannabis will flower for differing times... Although the avg for most heavy indica strains is 6 - 9 weeks, and for most sativa strains between 8 - 16 or even longer in some cases.
Germination - The process where a seed, once it begins to absorb water and under correct conditions will begin to split and grow. The process is aided by warmth, (around 25c is generally thought as an ideal, although slightly higher or lower is okay) the absence of light, (Being planted or covered in media.) and a supply of water surrounding the seed and penetrating it. Once the tap root emerges from the seed, germination has begun. When the seed has grown it's tap root, and begins to elongate the stem above ground, and opens its cotyledons, germination is finished, and as the first "true" leaves apear, seedling growth begins.
Growing Tip - This is also known as the meristem. This is the growth point from which new leaves and stems are produced and are at the end of every shoot. As the plant matures and gets older in veg, it produces more and more leaf and stem to support it, using this to produce food. Growing tips also contain hormones, according to their height. The highest tip on a plant will contain the most hormones or auxins, which regulate growth. If you remove the tip, these hormones are lost, and when the plant recovers it reproduces more auxins in the highest branches which are left. This allows lower branches to grow, and it can also be used to shape the growth of the plant as desired.
Hermie - aka Hermaphrodite. This is where both sexual parts are produced on one plant. Hermaphrodites can produce flowers dominant to one sex, where almost all flowers are of one sex, with only a few of the other. And they can also produce pretty much even levels of both flowers, depending on the actual cause of the hermaphroditic expression. Some strains will "go hermie" under stressful conditions, and some are predetermined through their breeding to produce both types of flowers from day one. Some hermies are self-fertile, some are not. But all hermies are regarded as a problem in a Sinsemilla garden of all female plants. A relatively small amount of pollen, even if produced from a hermie, can ruin a drug crop and produce a lot of seed.
- High Intensity Discharge lamps. These are of two main types for the purposes of growing Cannabis, being Metal Halide, (MH
) or High Pressure Sodium (HPS
). Both types use a ceramic element which is filled with vapourised gas, which when ignited via an electrical current, will produce light. MH
lights produce a mostly blue spectrum, and are mainly used for vegetative growth. HPS
lights produce a mostly red spectrum, and are mainly used for flowering growth. Although there are new types of HPS
lamps which have added spectra in the blue range, and are as such suitable for both purposes. Some growers swear by MH
lamps for flowering tho, and vice versa, so its an individual growing preference as to which lamp you choose. HID
lamps will come with a lamp socket, ballast and cord to plug it into a standard 120 or 240 v powerpoint. (depending on where you live) HID
lamps are very efficient for the light they produce, and most indoor cannabis growers use these lamps to grow. You should also obtain a reflector for most lamps, as they produce light in all directions. HID
lamps also produce large amounts of heat, so be prepared with good ventilation and air exchange.
- High Pressure Sodium lamp. A type of HID
lamp, incorporating a ceramic element in a vacuum tube, and a ballast to provide the initial voltage jump to start the lamp, and to maintain current at a lower level keeping the lamp lit. HPS
lamps are usually used in flowering stages, but they are also used for vegetative growth as well. Some newer lamps have added blue spectrum to enhance their horticultural applications.
Humidity - This is the measure of how much water vapour is held in a given space of air. As a general rule, humidity should be kept in a higher range in early growth, around 70 - 80 %, with lower levels for vegetative growth, between 50-70, and then reducing humidity to levels below 50% for flowering, as excessive moisture can cause mould problems with flowering plants. Humidity is directly related to the temperature of the air, when temp goes up, the amount of moisture the air can hold is increased. When the temp drops though, the capacity of air to hold moisture is dropped substantially, and if the temperature drops enough, the humidity levels will reach what is called "dew point" where condesation begins to occur on surfaces. This can be disastrous in a flowering indoor grow, when the lights go out. To eliminate humidity in dark conditions, ventilate the room constantly, day and night.
Humidity Dome - These are used for taking clones. The dome is a clear plastic cover which sits atop a tray used to hold the clones as they root. The dome increases the levels of humidity and allows the small plants to survive without roots for the first few days after taking clones. Humidity domes usually have vents which can be adjusted according to the clones age, (more open as the get older) and the conditions around them.
Hydroponic - Literally Water Work, from the greek hydros meaning water and ponos meaning work. First used in primitive forms by the aztecs, the word "hydroponics" was coined by a Professor Gericke, who in the 1930's developed a method of growing tomatoes, cucumbers and other crops using a form of water culture. This was the beginning of the modern hydroponics revolution in agriculture. Over time, hydroponics has changed to mean any form of plant growth using an inert media (or no media at all) and passing a nutrient solution across the roots of the plants, supplying them with the necessary salts for growth. Plants are generally accepted to need a few, (14 or so) nutrients in solution to live, absorbing these at different rates and needing different proportions. In nature, soil biota break down organics to produce these salts for plants to draw up and use in photosynthesis and growth. In hydroponics a ph-adjusted solution of nutrients is passed over the roots, providing all the plants need. Oxygen is important to the system, and the increased aeration and stability that is afforded in a well maintained hydroponic system makes for incredible growth rates. Hydroponics comes in many forms, recirculating, run to waste, flood and drain systems, media systems, Deep water culture and similar water culture systems, Nutrient Film Technique, and many others. Choosing the right system for growing cannabis can be important, and depends on your setup. Hydroponics is in the end just another way to grow plants, but in a much more controlled way. Some think that the organic molecules and other substances not present in hydroponics may lead to deficiencies and problems with plants, but there is not really enough known about the complex organic relationships between the soil and plants to definitely say one is better than the other. Hydroponic growing is also more daily maintenance and work than an equivalent soil system generally, but the added control can be worth the trouble.
Ignitor - A part of a ballast used to jump the voltage coming into the ballast and to the lamp in order to provide enough voltage to start HID
or fluoro lamps.
Medium - Any substance used to grow cannabis. Generally used to define what is used in hydroponics, as the "media" is often sterile and inert. Media can come in many forms, from expanded clay, to growool, to perlite, vermiculite, coco-peat and various other substances. Individual media are more suited to some hydroponic systems than others, although most can be added to normal soil systems as either extra drainage or water retention properties.
- Metal Halide, A type of High Intensity Discharge lamp. Used mostly for vegetative growth, some growers report excellent results from growing start to finish under MH
light. The spectra produced are more into the blue side of the range, although some are available with a phosphor coating which emits more red into the spectra.
Mite - a.k.a. Spider mites, Red Spider Mites, Carmine Spider Mites, Two spotted Mite and other names. These a members of the Arachnid family, and thus not strictly insects. They are tiny, sap sucking creatures which infest cannabis and other plants, feeding on leaf, stem and flower tissues, usually on the underside of leaves. The two worst culprits are the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and the carmine spider mite (T. cinnabarinus) and the red spider mite, (T. evansi) They are similar in appearance and life cycle, and are very nasty pests to get infested with. They are usually about .5mm long, and the life cycle is varied according to temperature, with more young produced and hatched quicker in warm to hot, dry conditions, which is their preference. Adult females can live for 7 days and produce several hundred eggs. T. urticae can thrive in much cooler conditions than T. Cinnabarius, which is a species more found in tropical areas. The hemp russet mite, (Aculops cannabicola) is just as destructive, but less commonly encountered. Other mites which have been reported on cannabis include the oriental mite (Eutetranychus orientalis), privet mites (Brevipalpus obovatus and B. rugulosus), and Typhlodromus cannabis. Mites will be very hard to see, so get a good magnifying glass and inspect leaves closely on the underside regularly to ensure you have no infestation. Keeping vectors away can help to, like cats and other plants, as well as good hygiene and cleanliness before handling plants. If the infestation gets large, you'll start to see fine webbing as the spider mites create paths to travel between sections of the plant and even others. These webs are very fine and difficult to see unless epidemic proportions are reached, but a spray of water can show them up. Mites such out the sap of individual cells, and this causes stippling and white spots to appear on the underside and leaf surface. These white dots are usually the first signs of infestation. Quick action is essential. Lowering temps and increasing humidity, along with spraying the undersides of the leaves and plants with jets of water can help, although this alone will not eliminate the infestation. Contact surfacant insecticides are effective, but must be repeated to get effective control of following generations. Most specific miticide insecticides will quckly develop resistance in the population, and so are not really recommended, after all, you'll be injesting the end product. Systemics can help, but once again, the concern about ingestion remains. The best cure for spider mites, of any form, is not to get them in the first place.
Mother Plants - A plant used for cloning purposes, and maintained in a vegetative stage of growth with a long photoperiod. These plants are usually kept small, for convenience, although any plant which clones are taken from are technically mother plants. The term is usually used to describe small plants kept specifically to clone for sucessive generations of clones. The clones are then used to grow flowering crops.
Node - The point on a plant stem where other stems, leaves, flowering (and possible rooting sites too, because they contain stem cells which can be converted) sites are located. These are usually a raised bump on the surface, and surrounding the stem, and from these nodes new growth is created and produced. These nodes are created themselves by the growing tip, and as the tip progresses it leaves the nodes behind. Nodes come in two main forms. Opposing, and alternating. Opposing nodes have two branches and leaves on two sides of the branch, directly opposite each other on the stem. These are produced mostly during the vegetative stage of growth, as the plant is producing as many stems and leaves as possible. As the plant matures and reaches sexual maturity, the nodes change in production to Alternating. These nodes only produce one branch and leaf. (or a flower site and leaf, when the plant is flowered) Alternating nodes are produced on the stem first on one side, then it rises and another is produced on the opposite side, a small distance up from the last. The distance between nodes in vegetative growth is defined by genetics and environment. Nodes will be produced at long intervals in overly warm, overly humid or low light environments, and shorter intervals in cool, dry and high light environments. Genetics plays a large part tho, with indica plants and dominant hybrids being short and stocky with a very short internode distance, and Sativa plants and dominant hybrids having relatively long distances between nodes.
Nute Burn - This is the effect caused by excessive strength to the nutrient solution, or excessive addition of nutrients to the soil. Plants will quickly overdose on nutrients if given more than the osmotic process can pass on. When the concentrations of nutrients become too high in the plant, it begins to lose the ability to draw water up into tissues, as well as excrete the excess nutrients into the media/soil, as the area surrounding the plants roots is already extrememly high in concentraion. Plants will quickly begin to "burn" where the plant begins to drop the very tips of its leaves, and these tips will then go brown with a yellow edge. If the problem is not fixed, this necrosis will continue and progress up the leaves and the plant will be severely affected. You may see a salty residue on the leaves showing that the concentrations are far too high. To cure these problems in hydro systems, immediately flush with ph adjusted water according to the relevant systems ph needs, do it several times until you cannot read any more salts coming out on an e.c. meter, or until the colour of the drainage is the same as the water you put in. Then you can begin to treat the plants by reducing concentration to 1/2 or even 1/4 if extremely overdosed, and it should recover soon. Any "burnt" parts of the plant will not recover, but tissues still soft and alive should soon return to normal colour. It's a stressful thing to do, so I don't recommend it.
Nute Meter - See E.C. meter
Nutes - "Nutes" is just an abbreviation slang form of Nutrient. When growing Hydroponically you have to supply the food for the plant, in the form of a solution of nutrients. In soil growing the nutrients are supplied through the breakdown of organic matter by the soil biota.
Generally its agreed that there are 14 nutes essential to growing weed, although some would add a couple of other trace elements to the mix. This list is from Ed Rosenthal.
Nitrogen - N
Phosphorus - P ----- major nutrients, needed in large amounts.
Potassium - K
Calcium - Ca
Sulphur - S ------ Secondary nutrients, needed in moderate amounts.
Magnesium - Mg
Iron - Fe
Zinc - Zn
Manganese - Mn
Boron - Bo
Cobalt - Co -------- Micro-nutrients, needed in trace levels
Copper - Cu
Molybdenum - Mo
Chlorine - Cl
(And some believe that Silicon - Si is a necessary microelement and essential to healthy growth as well, although this is a debated issue.)
Oh, that list doesn't include the Oxygen - O and Water - H2O which is also essential to life of plants, and sunlight or light of correct spectrums is also a requirement for growth, although these aren't supplied by nutrients, but the solution itself, the air and the energy source, (the sun or indoor lighting).
Organic - The term organic has several meanings, and here are a few. Organic can be a definition for a class of molecular compounds, having as their basis carbon. ie. "Hydrocarbons are organic molecules." The antithesis is Inorganic. Or, organic can be a reference to anything living or something produced through living processes, including death. And it can also refer to the nature of a fertiliser, there being chemical and organic fertilisers. Organic fertilisers are ones derived from living sources, like vermiculture, animal manure and decaying remains or living creatures. Organic can also refer to the general methods used to grow plants, in that you do not use methods of control for pests or fertilisation which are synthetic. Organics is pretty much just using natural and living processes to grow and maintain plants, as opposed to direct synthetic or chemical intervention to grow and maintain plants.
pH - The term comes from the French, (thanks to a clever Danish Scientist,Soren P.L. Sörenson who needed to work out how acid beer really was... mugs up to him) "pouvoir hydrogene", or literally "power of hydrogen". In english, it measures the amount of H+ ions present in an aqueous solution. The scale is from 1-14, with 7 being the "neutral" point. The more H+ ions a solution contains, the more acidic it is and the lower the ph. The less H+ ions a solution contains, the more alkaline it is, and the less H+ ions it contains. The scale is not direct, like 5 is twice as strong in acidity as 6, it works on a logarhythmic scale. If you have a solution with a pH of say 10, then it's got 1/10th the amount of H+ ions as a solution with a pH of 9. But a solution with a ph of 8 has 100 times the amount of H+ ions as a solution of 10... So for each number away from 7, you're moving x10, x100, x1000 from the original. So take it easy in adjusting it, as it takes less acid to produce more change as the solution becomes more acidic.
pH meter - An instrument which electronically determines the pH of a solution. These need to be calibrated periodically with a set solution of known pH, and the best types are waterproof. pH can also be tested using a Universal Indicator, or pH indicator liquid. Just add a couple of drops of these liquids to a sample of the solution to be tested and mix, and then read the corresponding colour on a chart to determine pH levels. These are accurate, but some people may find them hard to read. There are also test strips called litmus paper which shows pH, and these are good, but are one use only, and can be wasteful to use.
Photo-Period - This defines the period of light and darkness in the growroom. Cannabis is a photo-period sensitive plant, meaning that it regulates its life cycle annually through the change in hours of daylight and darkness through the seasons. When the daylight hours begin to drop, the plants begin to flower, with peak flowering usually occuring in early to autumn depending on the strain. The actual mechanism is related to the amount of darkness, as a snall amount of light in a dark period of over 12 hours will lessen the flowering effect of the plant, but a small amount of darkness in the light period will not affect the vegetative effect of the plant. Indoors you have to provide the correct timing for photoperiod, some growers use 24/0 day/night indoors for vegetative growth, and 12/12 for flowering, others prefer to leave a darkness time there for the plant, 18/6 or 20/4 is common as a vegetative growth photo-period. The best results are generally acheived on most strains in flowering by using 12/12, although further research in this area on a controlled basis would be welcomed.
Pollination - The process where the stigma of the female flower is fertilised by the pollen shed by the male plant. The male of the species will produce copious amounts of pollen, and this is very potent. It can survive for a short time, although it can remain somwhat viable for a couple of months if kept in cool, dry conditions. Pollination creates seed in a cannabis crop, and this is not desired for sinsemilla growers as it reduces potency and the plant will put energy into seed production rather than resin production and flowering. Pollination can be restricted to a single branch or cola tho, by using a paper or exclusionary fabric bag with pollen inside, wrapped around a single cola for a few days. This can be risky, as any accidental release of pollen can fertilise the entire crop, or at least make for a lot more seeds than you meant. It is however a good way to get a sinsimilla crop as well as seed for the next generation, if careful.
- Literally, Parts Per Million. A measure of the amount of particles/molecules/salts in a given solution. PPM
cannot be directly measured, only inferred, as it's a thing you can never completely measure. For ease of reading and such, it's used as a conversion from E.C. (x 700) to measure the total salts in a solution.
Preflowers - These are flowers appearing at the nodes on sexually mature plants. These may appear anywhere from 1 to 3 months after beginning vegging from seed, depending on strain. Preflowers are used to distinguish the sex on young seed grown plants before they become ferile. Males can be identified and removed from the garden, or moved to safe quarters, and females can be identified using preflowers. They appear slightly above a "spur" which is also produced on the node, and can be distinguished better when young easier with a magnifying glass, thus eliminating the accidental release of pollen.
Salt Fertiliser - Also known as chemical fertiliser, these are liquid or soluble solid fertilisers which contain most if not all of the nutrients required for plant growth, according to the brand and type. See nute for further info.
- Literally Screen of Green. This is a method of growing incorporation a growing plane defined usually by a plastic of metal screen, with large holes for plant tops to come through. Usually used with clones, as removing males can be difficult once going. The plant is usually trained as it grows under the screen, until the end of the "stretch" period, when the flowering tops are allowed to penetrate the screen and grow along a flat plane. This can make lighting more efficient, particularly in small systems, although it can be used on large scale. The basic principle is to use less plants and train them out to a large canopy size, removing the undercanopy which does not reach the screen before flowering or isn' likely to as you go along, and this gives a nice, flat, easily harvested plane of well lit buds with optimum condtions. Ventilation is important in such a system, as is strain selection.
- Literally Sea of Green. A method of growing utilising many small clones over a table or similar space, which are not grown to a large height before flowering, giving many small plants each yeilding small amounts individually, but as a whole working efficiently. It is a quick turnaround, high maintenance system of growing which can give good yeilds, but once again, strain selection is important in this kind of growing method. The theory is, that twice as many plants grown for half the time will produce just as much if not more buds quicker. It's yet to be conclusively proven which of Scrog
or Sog is the superiour yeilder in direct comparison, but they both offer something for growers, depending on their needs.
Stretch - This refers to the period of growth which cannabis plants go through before flowering proper begins. As the daylight hours decrease, or as the light is changed down from veg to flower, the plant gets the signal to flower. The "stretch" is where the plant can quickly double in size, and then it will slow down and use these branches to form flowering colas and heads. Sativa strains can stretch a lot more than Indica strains, and the minimum stretch is usually double the height from the end of vegetative growth to the end of flowering. Stretching plants can quickly get out of control, particularly sativa strains, and can continue to do so almost indefinitely indoors in some. Make sure any indoor grow has taken this effect into account.
Tap Root - This is the first and primary root produced by the young seedling cannabis plant, and from this the extensive fibrous root system develops and returns ultimately to. Hydroponic plants can be rather stunted in their tap root growth, as the plants are not required to look far for their nutrient source. In soil or outdoor conditions tho, the taproot can be very large, particularly in perfect soil, and can reach 30cm +. Tap roots are used by the plant as a stabilisation anchor, as well as a conduction point for the nutrients and water brought in by the rest of the root system.
Topping - This is where the growing tip of the cannabis plant is removed, thus altering the growth form of the plant. When a tip is removed, the two branches from the previous node will become dominant, although the amount of auxins produced in them will be divided between the two. This will stimulate them to become dominant branches, and they will develop as such. Bending and tying down can also have the same effect, but the auxins in the tip are not removed by the plant, merely moved to the new "top", the highest point. Using topping you can produce larger plants, although it does cause some stress. Some growers insist that topping increases yeild, although this may vary greatly strain to strain, and method and climate comes into the equation as well. See Growing Tip
Training - Training involves using twist-ties, string, or other tying material of all kinds to force the growth of the plant where you want it to go. Indoors, this can be an invaluable tool, as it allows you to guide the plant where you want it to go and towards the lamps. Outdoors it can provide a better profile for the plant to the sun as well as making plants more secure and unobtrusive. Training should be done with care to not cut into the plants as they grow, as the conductive tissues of the plant are just under the surface of the stem, not in the middle. Soft items such as rubber, pantyhose and elastic can also be used. Training can have similar effects to topping if the dominant or highest branch is lowered below others. See Topping.
Trichomes - These are small, mushroom appearing structures produced on the cannabis plant, and it is these which contain the THC
and other Cannabinoids which growers seek. Trichomes come in three main forms, 1 Capitate stalked trichomes, Bulbous Trichomes and Stalked Trichomes. The most THC
is contained in Capitate stalked Trichomes, which is the mushroom like structure described. The bulbous trichomes and stalked trichomes do contain cannabinoids, but not in the levels of the Capitate ones. On close inspection with a microscope or magnifying glass, you can see that as the plant progesses in age, it produces different trichomes in different parts. The stalked and bulbous trichomes may occasionally be found on the preflowers and leaves in young to semi-mature plants, but the capitate stalked trichomes come out in force in flowering and senescence. As the flowering process progresses, these trichomes begin to swell with more and more cannabinoids, at first producing and filling with clear liquid THC
. As the plant reaches peak, it continues to produce THC
, but some of it starts to degrade into lesser cannabinoids, givnig a milky appearance. This is thought to be the peak harvest time, although some let plants go longer. As the trichomes age, the THC
turns from milky to amber/yellow as the thc continues to degrade into CBD
. These latter cannabinoids are responsible for the "heavy" feeling of indica cannabis, although once again, harvest timing can affect it substantially.
Truncheon - A kind of E.C. meter, made by NZ hydroponics. It has E.C., CF and PPM
values on the side, and is generally thought of as an essential item in most hydroponic gardens. Other manufacturers make other meters, but the truncheon has an excellent reputation, and most would know it.
Vegging - The period directly after seedling stage, where the plant begins to produce more and more leaves and stems to support flowering. As the plant gets bigger, growth rates accellerate, and it can be very fast indeed. As the plant matures through the season, as vegging only occurs for any length of time under long days and short nights, the growth begins to alternate and produce preflowers, indicating it's readiness to flower and be fertilised, or grown on as sinsemilla. Indoors can keep plants in perpetual veg, if the growth space is large enough, or the plants are occasionally pruned. Plants from seed will usually need 1 -3 months minimum to maximum of vegetative growth. Whereas clones can be grown for only a few weeks, (as they are quicker to take off and grow than a seed plant of same size) and then flowered as they are already likely to be sexually mature and ready to be flowered.
Many thanks and credits must go to those who've helped me with this and whom I've used as a reference or source, like....
Cannabis Pests J. M. McPartland, AMRITA, 53 Washington Street,Middlebury, VT 05753, USA http://www.hempfood....A/iha03201.html
Marijuana Growers Handbook by Ed Rosenthal
Indoor Marijuana Horticulture by Jorge Cervantes and Robert Connel Clarke
My brain for absorbing this information over the years and keeping it on call,
Ozstoners for making the thing possible, as well as the members,